Hello, Im really struggling on all these questions, can someone please explain step by step thank you !
4. Carbon export in upwelling regions. This problem will guide you through thesolulution of a box model to estimate how much carbon is produced and exported by thebiological pump in an upwelling region similar to the California Current.A schematic of the box model is shown at the end of the homework (Figure 2). Use it asyour guide. We consider a surface "upwelling box" located next to the coast, whichextends for 500 km in the north-south direction, and 50 km offshore. That is, the surfacearea of the upwelling region is 500 x 50 km2. The mean upwelling velocity (w) at thebase of the box is w = 3-10-5 m s1, typical of the California Current. The deep waterupwelling into the box has a nitrate (NO3) concentration NO3deep = 30 mmol m-3 andthe water within the box has a nitrate concentration NOssurf = 10 mmol m-3.(a) Calculate the total transport of water U upwelling into the box, and express youranswer in Sv (1Sv = 106 m3 s-1). (1 point)(b) Calculate the residence time of water in the upwelling box (relative to upwelling),assuming that the vertical thickness of the box is 100 m. Express your result in units ofdays. (1point)(c) Convince yourself that the conservation equation for nitrate in the box, NO3surf, is:d NOWAdt- = U . NOdeep – U . NOWf – nWhere V is the volume of the box (you won’t need the actual value), U is the water fluxupwelling into the box and exiting from the offshore side, and /7 is the export of organicnitrogen sinking out of the box by the biological pump. Assume steady state and find anexpression for the export of organic nitrogen /7 (1 point).(d) Plug in the numerical values for the upwelling rate U and the nitrate concentrationsNO3deep and NO3surf and determine the value of the organic nitrogen export /1,expressing it in units of mol s-1. (1 point)(e) Calculate the residence time of nitrate in the box, relative to the organic nitrogenexport //. Express your result in units of days. How does it compare to the residencetime of water you found in (b)? (1 point)(f) Calculate how much organic carbon is exported from the surface box, assuming thatit follows a Redfield Ratio (106:16) with organic nitrogen export you found in (d).Express your answer in units of g s-1. (1point)(e) California’s carbon emissions as CO2 to the atmosphere are approximately 120 Mt Cy-1, where 1 Mt = 106 g. How much higher (or lower) would the upwelling rate need tobe,, so that carbon sequestration by the biological pump in the upwelling region could
Essay Writing Service Features
Our ExperienceNo matter how complex your assignment is, we can find the right professional for your specific task. Writing Errands is an essay writing company that hires only the smartest minds to help you with your projects. Our expertise allows us to provide students with high-quality academic writing, editing & proofreading services.
Free revision policy$10
Free bibliography & reference$8
Free title page$8
How Our Essay Writing Service Works
First, you will need to complete an order form. It's not difficult but, in case there is anything you find not to be clear, you may always call us so that we can guide you through it. On the order form, you will need to include some basic information concerning your order: subject, topic, number of pages, etc. We also encourage our clients to upload any relevant information or sources that will help.Complete the order form
Once we have all the information and instructions that we need, we select the most suitable writer for your assignment. While everything seems to be clear, the writer, who has complete knowledge of the subject, may need clarification from you. It is at that point that you would receive a call or email from us.Writer’s assignment
As soon as the writer has finished, it will be delivered both to the website and to your email address so that you will not miss it. If your deadline is close at hand, we will place a call to you to make sure that you receive the paper on time.Completing the order and download
has just ordered a
5 page essay
1 minutes ago.