In the following question, the domain of discourse is a set of male patients in a clinical study. Define the following predicates:
P(x): x was given the placebo
D(x): x was given the medication
M(x): x had migraines
Translate each statement into a logical expression. Then negate the expression by adding a negation operation to the beginning of the expression. Apply De Morgan’s law until each negation operation applies directly to a predicate and then translate the logical expression back into English.