b) Explain how a system call utilizes interrupts, user and monitor modes, and privileged instructions. What is achieved in return? Explain your understanding.
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Q.2 Consider a preemptive operating system where processes have priorities and a running process gets preempted (i.e., forced to leave the CPU) as soon as a higher priority process is ready to run. The life cycle of a process, other than the very first process, begins with a “spawn” by another process and ends with either a regular “exit” by the process or a “terminate (process_id)” command by another process of equal or higher priority.