Write 2 page essay on the topic Application: Topic: Applying Theory to Specific Settings and Populations.
There exist many theories that give clinical psychology and the field of psychology in general a scientific foundation. Theories create a body of knowledge upon which clinical psychologists can rely and make appropriate decisions. Two main theories that are relevant to clinical psychologists are behaviorism or behavior theory and cognitive theories (Compas & Gotlib, 2002). These two theories form a basis for two main approaches in clinical psychology, one based on studying behavior of patients while the other focuses on understanding the internal functioning of one’s mind. James Watson is believed to be the originator of behavioral theories, based on the idea that individual behavior can be measured, changed or trained to attain certain desired levels. According to the theory, behavior can be learnt through conditioning as a result of one interacting with their environment (Compas & Gotlib, 2002). Cognitive theories on the other hand focus on understanding internal mental states of individuals. The main tenets of cognitive theories are mental reductionism, mental processing and memory constructs. This entails understanding mental processes such as recalling, thinking and analyzing (Compas & Gotlib, 2002).